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Types of Cement in Nepal

Without cement, we can’t imagine construction works. Cement is one of the key materials for construction works. Cement work as a binder in concrete, which is a basic material for all types of construction, including housing, roads, schools, hospitals, dams, and ports. Moreover, we use cement for decorative applications too. There are different types of cement and they have their uses. Today, in this article we are talking about the types of cement in Nepal and their uses.

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Cement is a fine dry powder, that plays a major role in the construction field. A premium quality cement provides mechanical strength and durability to the structures. Moreover, cement provides other properties like:

Porosity and density
Fire resistance
Thermal and acoustic insulation properties.
Impact resistance

Thus, we can say cement is one of the key materials in construction works along with rods and bricks. Now, let us talk about the types of cement in Nepal.

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Here is the list of types of cement in Nepal

In the construction industry, different types of cement are used. Its property, use, and composition materials make a difference in each type of cement. So, now let’s look at the common types of cement in Nepal.

OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement)

First, let’s talk about Ordinary Portland Cement known as OPC in construction. It is a type of cement that is manufactured and used worldwide. The Ordinary Portland Cement comprises calcareous and argillaceous materials, such as limestone or chalk, and from aluminum oxide, silica oxide, ferric oxide, and magnesium oxide found as clay or shale. Ordinary Portland Cement is available in three different grades that are grade 33, grade 43, and grade 53. Its price is 650 to 900 per 50 kg sack in Nepal.

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Advantages of OPC:

It has a high compressive strength in the early stages
OPC low alkali content provides better protection against alkali-aggregate reaction
Its high early strength facilitates speedy construction
OPC has superior resistance to sulfate attack due to less C3A (Tricalcium aluminate)

Uses of OPC:

Concrete: 
When Ordinary Portland Cement is mixed with aggregates and water, it makes concrete, which is widely used in the construction of buildings 
Mortar: For joining masonry 
Plaster: To give a perfect finish to the walls

Besides these above purposes, Ordinary Portland cement is also used to manufacture grout, wall putty, solid concrete blocks, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) blocks, and different types of cement. 

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PPC (Porland Pozzolana Cement)

Another common type of cement in Nepal is PPC cement. When fly ash, volcanic ash, Calcined clay, Lica fumes are added to Ordinary Portland Cement then it becomes Portland Pozzolana Cement. Moreover, adding a grind pozzolanic clinker with Portland cement also makes PPC cement. It has a high resistance to different chemical assaults on concrete. PPC’s price is 640 to 850 per 50 kg sack in Nepal.

PPC Cement is best used in marine structures, sewage works, bridges, piers, dams, mass construction works, and decorative works as well.

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Advantages of PPC:

Improves workability
Helps in reducing void spaces & also blocks capillary channels & subsequently reduces the permeability of concrete
PPC reduces bleeding by providing greater fines volume and lower water content
The spherical shape of particles serves to increase pump ability by decreasing friction between aggregate particles and between concrete & pump line
Has better setting time and finish ability
Offers Comprehensive strength
The modulus of elasticity of Portland Pozzolana Cement concrete is somewhat lower at early ages and a little higher at later ages than ordinary concrete
Increases paste volume & reduce bleeding thus the contact will be increased, resulting in an improved bond with steel
The hydration of PPC is a slower process than the hydration of ordinary cement.
Reduces drying shrinkage & plastic shrinkage.

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PSC ( Portland Slag Cement)

The next cement type in Nepal is PSC (Portland Slag Cement). It is a blended cement where Slag is, essentially, a non-metallic product comprising more than 90% glass with silicates and alumino-silicates of lime. PSC is created with a combination of up to 45-50% slag, 45% – 50% clinker, and 3-5% gypsum. It is environmentally friendly. Moreover, PSC has a low heat of hydration. PSC cement has a price of Rs. 750 to 800 per 50 kg sack in Nepal.

Image source: Jagdamba

Advantages of PSC:

Better compatibility with all types of admixtures
Superior finish
Ease of pumping
Better resistance against and alkali-silica reaction
Ultimate compressive strength
Minimizes cracks
Improve workability
Minimized shrinkage cracks
Excellent resistance to Chloride & Sulphate attacks

Uses of PSC:

All types of residential, commercial, and industrial projects
Dams and other mass concrete works
Water retaining structures
Concrete roads and flyovers
Most suitable for marine constructions
Pre-cast concrete products
Foundations and piles construction

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White Cement

White Portland cement, or White Cement, or  White Ordinary Portland Cement (WOPC) is exactly the same as Ordinary Portland Cement and Portland Pozzolana Cement in all ways. The only difference is except its white color. For, obtaining this white color requires a radical change in the way it is made.

Thus, because of this, it is more expensive than a gray product. It is manufactured by using raw materials that are free from iron and oxide. White Portland cement needs to have lime and clay in a higher proportion. The price of white cement in Nepal is approximately Rs. 30 to 40 per kg.

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Advantages of White Cement:

Thermal insulation of concrete made of White Cement is better than other types of cement.
It is a good reflector to the light. It not only gives good looking and charm to the building, but also saves energy to enlighten the interior and exterior of the building.
Products manufactured using white cement can be recycled and reused in other products at the end of their useful life.
Can be applied as wall putty in order to fill the uneven surface of the wall before applying paints to the wall.
It can be used instead of white paint or lime or other whitewash material.
White cement is used to set the top roof pavers, road and street pavers, marble tiles, and ceramic tiles.  
It has a strong waterproof effect. Thus, we do need not any waterproofing coating on the structure.
The buildings and structures that are made up of White cement are able to withstand the high temperature.

Uses of White Cement:

White Cement is used in combination with white ingredients to produce white concrete for projects to build fame.
It is used in fixing marble tiles, sheathing walls, floors, and roofs.
The white cement is mixed with white aggregate, to construct the floor sheathing and skirting of the walls.
The main purpose of the white cement is to give charm and decorate the surface areas of the building.
It is also added to lime for a whitewash. Because the combination of white cement increases the adhesive characteristic of the lime.

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In the end

These are the common types of cement used in Nepal for construction works.

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