Buffalo farming is one of the well-known agricultural businesses in Nepal. It is quite profitable as the buffalo is a multi-purposed animal that can be used to produce milk, meat, skin, and manure which can be used in fertilizer, energy sources, etc. Many people are engaged in Buffalo farming in Nepal. Here, in this article, we are with the things you need to know before buffalo farming in Nepal.
To Begin With
As we know more than 60% of the population is involved in agriculture in Nepal. Most of the rural population has the main source of income as agriculture. And Buffalo farming is one of the popular ones.
In Nepal, Buffalo farming has been done for many years. And it is not just in Nepal but it can be found almost everywhere in the world. So in this article, we are gonna talk about a few things you need to know before starting Buffalo farming in Nepal.
Housing for Buffalo (Shed)
Like any livestock, buffalo also needs housing to rest and stay safe from environmental factors like rain, sunlight, etc. The housing used for buffalo is known as a shed and here are a few things to consider while making it.
The length of a shed should be about 3.8 m to 4.5 m including manager if you want to use a single row. But if you want to use double-row the length of the stable should at least be about 8.9 m to 9.7 m. While breath of the stable should be increased by about 1.8 meters per buffalo.
The floor of the stable can be made of flat stone or cement concrete with a slope to one side at least one foot above the ground. While the roof must be at least more than 3 m and made up of Thatch, Tile, or Asbestos.
Now when it comes to manager the manager height should not exceed 50 cm for an adult buffalo while for calves it should be 20-25 cm. The depth of the feeding manger should not be more than 40 cm for adults and 20 cm for calves.
Different Climate and Way to Tackle
Summer/ Humid Days
In Summer, the hot temperatures can give trouble to the buffaloes. However, buffalos can lose heat using their respiratory tract. Still, saying that it doesn’t mean hot temperature can be ignored. Thus, here are some ways to help the buffalo in hot climates.
|The best way to help them is by letting them stay in shade be it in a shed or under the tree.|
|Cool water can help them regulate temperature a lot better.|
|A wallow helps buffalo during a hot day like swimming does to humans.|
|Give buffalo cold shower twice a day for 3 min.|
Winter and Cold Climate
Any livestock can get sick if they are left as it is during the cold season. So here are some actions that we can take during cold weather to keep buffaloes warm.
|Stable with a strong roof high enough walls so that rain, snow, and strong wind don’t affect them.|
|Make sure the shed is dry and clean.|
|If the temperature is too low a heated barn is required.|
Feeding for Buffalo
Buffalo are herbivores and only eat plants. They usually eat grass and herbs, but some can eat aquatic plants as well. They can eat shrubs, tree leaves, or vegetables if they can’t find grass and herbs.
Buffalo on average eats 25 kg of grass and 70L of water each day. Freshwater is essential for a healthy buffalo as saline water reduces animal performance and productivity with increasing effect along with the increase in salt content.
In the case of calves, they are fed milk till they are 12 weeks old while slowly decreasing milk and increasing concentrates and green fodder. And after 12 weeks calf is stopped from drinking milk and given the required amount of concentrate and green fodder.
In some cases instead of leaving buffalo feed grass. Some might make their feed and give it. Here is a feed recipe for feed in case you want to see their development
|72% = Grains|
|25% = Seed vegetables|
|2% = Mineral Mixture|
|1% = Salt|
It should be noted that the feed should be used within 1 month and any older than that might cause health problems for the cattle.
The disease is a major problem in the livestock industry. In buffalo farming, we need to vaccinate the calf, for increasing their immunity against different diseases. Here is a table showing the vaccine for the calf and the age at which it is given.
|Early once||FDM vaccine|
|0-8 weeks before weaning||Black Quarter (First vaccine)|
|2-4 months||FDM first vaccine|
|4-8 months||Brucella vaccine|
|6-8 months||FDM booster vaccine|
|6 months||Anthrax Black Quarter (Second vaccine) Hemorrhagic Septicemia vaccine|
Deworming of the calf starts from the first week of the calf. One oral dose of 10 g piperazine adipate is suggested for the calves within the first week. And then we need to do deworming every month for the first 6 months, then once every 3 months. The deworming drug is consulted with a qualified doctor and it right dose should be given to prevent side effects.
How Much Capital Do We Need to Have to Start a Buffalo Farming in Nepal?
Here is a basic overview of the budget, we need to start a small buffalo farm of 30 buffaloes.
|Buffaloes (30 Buffalo)||30,00,000|
|Other(Labor, Feed, Medicine per month)||70,000|
From the above table, we can assume that we need the budget of NRs. 7,000,000 to 7,500,000 on average to start a buffalo framing with 30 buffaloes.
Expected Average Income
Buffalo farming can be a good way to increase economic standards for farmers. A buffalo can easily give 5 to 10 liters per day. Thus, we can make a monthly income of NRS 150,000 on average, after deducting all expenses. Along with that, you can also sell buffalo for meat, which has a good market.
This is all about buffalo farming in Nepal.
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